domingo, 11 de septiembre de 2011

COMO EXPLICO YO LO DEL CAPITALISMO...


Si fuera historiador y nutricionista, que no soy ni lo uno ni lo otro, escribiría un tratado sobre cómo entender el capitalismo y sus apetitos. Todos esos conceptos complicados que muchas veces se nos escapan quedarían, mejor o peor, explicados con ejemplos sencillos y tangibles.

Cuando leemos que el capitalismo se basa en la propiedad privada, empezaría la lección por el cercamiento de tierras en la Inglaterra feudal. Lo que era un bien de usufructo colectivo, la tierra cultivable, quedó vallado, protegido y mandado por y para unos pocos. El desarrollo de industrias competitivas (y que sólo se alimentaban del lucro económico, olvidándose de los derechos más básicos) se hizo patente en los millones de campesinos esclavizados y expulsados de su residencia, edificando la revolución industrial y volcando las riquezas de los países periféricos hacia los países centrales. El poder corporativo, otra de las características del capitalismo, tiene también los mejores ejemplos y mucho recorrido en el campo agrícola –quizás ahí nació– con las grandes compañías fruteras y hoy con un puñado de empresas que controlan las semillas, granos, cereales y todo lo que es comestible. Por último, el nulo respeto por el medio ambiente, que nos creemos que está bajo nuestro dominio y explotación, también queda reflejado en la intensificación de la agricultura y la ganadería.

Es decir, me gustaría escribir un tratado que demostraría cómo en la agricultura fue donde el capitalismo antes actuó y donde antes se conocieron sus nefastos efectos. Es por eso que para las poblaciones rurales de todo el planeta, la crisis que padecemos actualmente no es más que un accidente coyuntural, una piedra en un camino de socavones. La conocen desde hace décadas: hambre, desempleo, falta de servicios, trabajo basura, desprecio político.

Si fuera sociólogo, encontraría también una correlación clara entre quienes han sufrido los estragos del capitalismo y quienes –desde hace tiempo– están en lucha contra él. Y sabría explicarles por qué el movimiento mundial de campesinos y pequeños agricultores, La Vía Campesina, aglutina a más de 200 millones de seres humanos movilizados contra las empresas de agronegocios que se están adueñando de la agricultura, contra el acaparamiento de tierras y contra el libre comercio.

Sin ser historiador, nutricionista ni sociólogo, lo que sí puedo afirmar es que las luchas de La Vía Campesina han sido un elemento clave para frenar las políticas de libre comercio impulsadas centralmente desde la Organización Mundial de Comercio, lo que ha llevado a los defensores de este modelo capitalista y desregulado a la multiplicación de tratados de libre comercio bilaterales entre varios países o varias regiones. El más precoz, el Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC) entre Canadá, EEUU y México, nos ha dejado en sus más de 15 años de aplicación resultados claros: la agricultura industrializada de los poderosos ha empobrecido y desplazado a la agricultura indígena –madre y padre del maíz–. El más reciente, entre Colombia y la Unión Europea, promete darnos frutos similares.

La Política Agraria Común de la Unión Europea que favorece la ganadería industrial y sus corporaciones tiene desde hace años un problema de excedentes de leche. Este modelo de sobreproducción y concentración ha sido el causante de la ruina de miles y miles de pequeñas ganaderías y lecherías de las zonas rurales europeas, muy evidentes en el norte peninsular. Lejos de revertir la situación, la solución que se propone es más mecanismos que beneficien a estas grandes industrias, con instrumentos que favorezcan la exportación de leche a países como Colombia, donde el respectivo TLC permitirá su entrada en torrentes.
 
Un tratado que trata de eliminar barreras es un acuerdo que deja una lucha desigual entre industrias lácteas europeas todopoderosas, altamente subvencionas (la UE dedica 16.000 millones de euros anuales a este sector), con sistemas de producción muy intensivos y bajos costes, frente a millones de pequeñas ganaderías locales.

Colombia es autosuficiente con su producción láctea. Del total, un 43% se produce y distribuye en una cadena popular que apenas recibe el apoyo estatal y que maneja un volumen de 7,75 millones de litros diarios que van tanto a los hogares, como a millares de pequeñas y medianas industrias de derivados lácteos que producen quesos campesinos, cuajos, mantequilla casera, almojábanas, arequipes, crema de leche, kumis, postres, yogur casero, sabajón, avenas lácteas, “panelitas” y muchas otras exquisiteces. Los consumidores atendidos, que deberán hervir la leche para garantizar su higiene, llegan casi a 20 millones de personas, los “jarreadores” (transportistas de la leche) se acercan a 50.000 y, finalmente, el valor de este negocio es de más de tres billones de pesos anuales (cerca de 1.700 millones de dólares), cifra nada despreciable para apetitos voraces.

Es este 43%, estos 1.700 millones de dólares distribuidos entre mucha población, lo que un modelo capitalista no puede dejar de aprovechar. En breve, con el tratado en marcha y sin aranceles a la importación a la leche extranjera, pasará a ser parte de las multinacionales de la industria láctea. Las mismas que ya engordaron en España a base de comerse a campesinas y campesinos.

By Gustavo Duch – Consejo Científico de ATTAC.


INGLES:

I EXPLAINED HOW CAPITALISM ...

If a historian and nutritionist, I'm neither one nor the other, write a treatise on how to understand capitalism and its appetites. All these complicated concepts that often elude us would be better or worse, explained with simple examples and tangible.

When we read that capitalism is based on private property, begin the lesson by the enclosure of land in feudal England. What was a good collective enjoyment, the arable land was fenced, protected and instructed by and for the few. The development of competitive industries (and only ate economic gain, forgetting the most basic rights) was evident in the millions of enslaved peasants and evicted from his residence, building the industrial revolution and turning the wealth of the peripheral countries to core countries. Corporate power, another feature of capitalism is also the best examples and much travel in agriculture, perhaps born there, with big fruit companies and today a handful of companies controlling the seeds, grains, cereals and all what is edible. Finally, the lack of respect for the environment, we believe that under our domination and exploitation, is also reflected in the intensification of agriculture and livestock.

I mean, I like to write a treaty that would show how agriculture was where capitalism acted before and where they met before their harmful effects. That's why for rural populations around the world, the crisis we suffer today is nothing more than a conjunctural accident, a stone on a path of tunnels. She is known for decades: hunger, unemployment, lack of services, labor, waste, political contempt.

If a sociologist, would also find a clear correlation between those who have suffered the ravages of capitalism and who-long-are fighting it. And you explain why the global movement of peasants and small farmers, Via Campesina, brings together more than 200 million people mobilized against agribusiness companies that are taking over agriculture, against land grabbing and anti-free trade.

Not being a historian, sociologist or nutritionist, so I can say is that the struggles of La Via Campesina have been key to curb free trade policies promoted centrally from the World Trade Organization, which has led advocates of the capitalist model and deregulated proliferation of bilateral free trade agreements between countries or different regions. The earlier, the Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, USA and Mexico, has left more than 15 years of results clear: the powerful industrialized agriculture has impoverished and displaced indigenous agriculture-mother and father of corn. Most recently, between Colombia and the European Union promises to give similar fruits.

The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union that promotes industrial farming and its corporations have for years a problem of surplus milk. This pattern of overproduction and concentration has been the cause of the ruin of thousands and thousands of small farms and dairies in Europe's rural areas, very evident in the northern peninsula. Far from reversing the situation, the solution proposed is more mechanisms that benefit these major industries, with instruments to enhance the export of milk to countries like Colombia, where the respective FTA will enter into torrents.

A treaty that seeks to eliminate barriers is an agreement that leaves an unequal struggle between European dairy industries all powerful, highly subsidized (the EU spent 16,000 million euros annually to this sector), with highly intensive production systems and low costs, compared to millions small herds.

Colombia self-sufficient with milk production. Of the total, 43% is produced and distributed in a popular chain that just gets state support and manages a volume of 7.75 million liters per day provide both households and thousands of small and medium industries from dairy farmers producing cheese, curds, butter, homemade almojábanas, caramel, cream, buttermilk, desserts, homemade yogurt, sabajón, oat milk, "panelitas" and many other delicacies. Consumers served, it must boil the milk to ensure hygiene, reaching almost 20 million people, "jarreadores" (transport of milk) are close to 50,000 and, finally, the value of this business is more than three billion pesos per year (about 1,700 million dollars), which is negligible for big appetites.

This is 43%, these 1,700 million dollars distributed among many people, a capitalist model that can not pass up. In short, the treaty up and no import duties on foreign milk, will become part of the multinational dairy industry. They already fattened in Spain based on eating peasants.

By Gustavo Duch - Scientific Council of ATTAC.

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